What Are Systemic Enzymes And What Do They Do?
The word "systemic" means body wide. Systemic enzymes help maintain
homeostasis, or balance within the body. They play a major role in
all metabolic and physiological responses in the body. They are
necessary in the maintenance of good health! But, lets start first
by asking the question, what is an enzyme?
An enzyme is a biocatalyst - meaning something that makes something
else work, or, work faster. Chemical reactions are generally slow
and enzymes speed them up. (As slow as sap running down a tree in
winter). For life to manifest as we know it, enzymes are essential
to speed up the reactions. We have roughly some 3,000 enzymes in our
bodies, which results in over 7,000 enzymatic reactions. Most of
these enzymes are derived or created from what we think of as the
protein digesting enzymes. While digestion is an important part of
what enzymes do, it's almost the absolute last function. First and
foremost these body wide proteolytic (protein eating) enzymes have
the following actions:
Natural Anti-Inflammatory. They are the first line of defense
against inflammation. (1,2,3). Inflammation is a reaction created by
the immune system as an irritation. Let's say you have an injured
right knee. The immune system sensing the irritation from the knee
creates a protein chain called a Circulating Immune Complex (CIC for
short), tagged specifically for that right knee. (The Nobel Prize in
biology was won in 1999 by a scientist who discovered this tagging
mechanism). This CIC floats down to the right knee and causes pain;
redness and swelling these are the classic earmarks for
inflammation. This at first is a beneficial reaction; it warns us
that a part of ourselves is hurt and needs attention. But,
inflammation is self-perpetuating itself creating an irritation that
the body makes CIC's to in response!
Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Celebrex, Vioxx and the rest of the Non
Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs all work by keeping the body from
making all CIC's. This ignores the fact that some CIC's are vital to
life, like those that maintain the lining of the intestine, and
those that keep the kidneys functioning! Not to mention the fact
that the NSAID's, along with acetaminophen, are highly toxic to the
liver. Every year 20,000 Americans die from these over the counter
drugs and another 100,000 will wind up in the hospital with liver
damage, kidney damage or bleeding intestines from the side effects
of these drugs. (4,5).
Systemic enzymes on the other hand are perfectly safe and free of
dangerous side effects. They have no LD-50, or toxic dose. (6). Best
of all systemic enzymes can tell the difference between the good CIC's and the bad ones because hydrolytic enzymes are lock and key
mechanisms and their "teeth" will only fit over the bad CIC's. So
instead of preventing the creation of all CIC's, systemic enzymes
just "eat" the bad ones and in so doing lower inflammation
everywhere. With that, pain is lowered also.
Anti-Fibrosis. Enzymes eat scar tissue and fibrosis. (7).
Fibrosis is scar tissue and most doctors learn in anatomy that it is
fibrosis that eventually kills us all. Let me explain. As we age,
which starts at 27, we have a diminishing of the bodies' output of
enzymes. This is because we make a finite amount of enzymes in a
lifetime and we use up a good deal of them by the time we are 27. At
that point the body knows that if it keeps up that rate of
consumption we'll run out of enzymes and be dead by the time we
reach our 40's. (Cystic Fibrosis patients who have virtually no
enzyme production to speak of, even as children usually don't make
it past their 20's before they die of the restriction and shrinkage
in the lungs from the formation of fibrosis or scar tissue).
So our body in it's wisdom begins to dole out our enzymes with an
eyedropper instead of with a tablespoon; as a result the repair
mechanism of the body goes out of balance and has nothing to reduce
the over abundance of fibrin it deposits in nearly every thing from
simple cuts, to the inside of our internal organs and blood vessels.
This is when most women begin to develop things like fibrocystic
breast disease, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and we all grow
arterial sclerotic (meaning scar tissue) plaque, and have fibrin
beginning to spider web its way inside of our internal organs
reducing their size and function over time. This is why as we age
our wounds heal with thicker, less pliable, weaker and very visible
If we replace the lost enzymes we can control and reduce the amount
of scar tissue and fibrosis our bodies have. As physicians in the US
are now discovering, even old scar tissue can be "eaten away" from
surgical wounds, pulmonary fibrosis, kidney fibrosis and even
keloids years after their formation. Medical doctors in Europe and
Asia have known this and have used orally administered enzymes for
these situations for over 40 years!
Blood Cleansing. The blood is not only the river of life; it
is also the river through which the cells and organs dispose of
their garbage and dead material. Enzymes improve circulation by
eating the excess fibrin that causes blood to sometimes get as thick
as catsup or yogurt, creating the perfect environment for the
formation of clots. All of this material is supposed to be cleared
by the liver on its "first pass", or the first time it goes through
but given the sluggish and near toxic or toxic states of everyone's
liver these days that seldom happens. So the sludge remains in the
blood waiting for the liver to have enough free working space and
enough enzymes to clean the trash out of the blood. This can take
days, and in some cases, weeks! (8).
When systemic enzymes are taken, they stand ready in the blood and
take the strain off of the liver by:
1. Cleaning excess fibrin from the blood and reducing the stickiness
of blood cells.
These two actions minimize the leading causes of stroke and
heart attack causing
blood clots. (8).
2. Breaking dead material down small enough that it can immediately
pass into the
3. Cleanse the FC receptors on the white blood cells improving their
availability to fight off infection. (9).
And here we come to the only warning we have to give concerning the
use of GemZyme or any other systemic enzyme - don't use the product
if you are a hemophiliac or are on prescription blood thinners like
Coumadin, Heparin and Plavix, without direct medical supervision.
The enzymes cause the drugs to work better so there is the
possibility of thinning the blood too much.
Immune System Modulating. Enzymes are adaptogenic seeking to
restore a steady state to the body. (9). When the immune system is
running low we become susceptible to infectious disease, when it's
cranked up too high then the system creates antibodies that attack
it's own tissues as are seen in the auto immune diseases of MS,
Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Lupus. Here the enzymes will tone down
immune function and eat away at the antibodies the immune system is
making to attack its bodies own tissue.
Virus Fighting. Viruses harm us by replicating in our bodies.
To do this a virus must bond itself to the DNA in our cells through
the medium of its exterior protein cell wall. Anything that disrupts
that cell wall inhibits the ability of viral replication by
rendering individual viruses inert. (10,11). Systemic enzymes can
tell the difference between the proteins that are supposed to be in
your body and those that are foreign or not supposed to be there,
(again the enzyme lock and key mechanism). GemZyme has the strongest
protein eating effect of any enzyme due to its Serrapeptase content
and can be of help in combating viruses.
One note: many in the States have learned in school that enzymes are
too big a protein to be absorbed through the gut. The pioneering
research done in the US by Dr. Max Wolf (MD & PhD x7) at Columbia
University in the 40's through the 70's has not made it to the
awareness of most doctors. There are currently over 200 peer
reviewed research articles dealing with the absorption, utilization
and therapeutic action of orally administered systemic enzymes. A
search through Pub Med using the key words: Serrapeptase, Papain,
Bromelain, Trypsin, Chymo trypsin, Nattokinase and systemic enzyme
will yield some of the extensive work. Systemic enzymes now have a
4-decade plus history of widespread medical use in central Europe
GemZyme with its Serrapeptase based blend of enzymes is the
fastest working systemic enzyme on the planet with research to
1) Carroll A., R.: Clinical examination of an enzymatic
anti-inflammatory agent in emergency
surgery. Arztl. Praxis 24 (1972), 2307.
2) Mazzone A, et al.: Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or
chronic inflammation of
otorhinolaryngology pathology: a multicentre, double blind,
randomized trial versus
placebo. J Int Med Res. 1990; 18(5):379-88.
3) Kee W., H. Tan S, L., Lee V. Salmon Y. M.: The treatment of
breast engorgement with
Serrapeptase: a randomized double blind controlled trial.
Singapore Med J. 1989:30(l):48-54.
4) Celebrex article Wall Street Journal 19 April 1999.
5) No author listed: Regular Use of Pain Relievers Can Have
Dangerous Results. Kaleidoscope Interactive News, American
Medical Association media briefing. July 24, 1997.
6) Enzymes ñ A Drug of the Future, Prof. Heinrich Wrba MD and Otto
Pecher MD. Published
1993 Eco Med.
7) Kakinumu A. et al.: Regression of fibrinolysis in scalded rats by
serrapeptase. Biochem. Pharmacol. 31:2861-2866,1982.
8) Ernst E., Matrai A.: Oral Therapy with proteolytic enzymes for
modifying blood rheology.
Klin Wschr. 65 (1987), 994.
9) Kunze R., Ransberger K., et at: Humoral immunomodulatory capasity
of proteases in
immune complex decomposition and formation. First International
combination therapies, Washington, DC, 1991.
10) Jager H.: Hydrolytic Enzymes in the therapy of HIV disease.
19 (1990), 160.
11) Bartsch W.: The treatment of herpes zoster using proteolytic
enzymes. Der Informierte
Arzt. 2 (1974), 424-429. © Copyright 1999-2004 Wholelistic
Knowledge Educators, LLC
and its licensors.
Enzyme Fights Inflammation
Our bodies have a love-hate relationship with inflammation. On the
one hand, inflammation is a natural response, necessary to protect
the body from invading organisms. On the other hand, inflammation
can limit joint function, and destroy bone, cartilage and other
An elusive goal of scientists and physicians has been to find a
side-effect-free substance to reduce the pain and inflammation
associated with fibrocystic breast disease, rheumatoid arthritis,
idiopathic edema, carpal tunnel syndrome and post-operative
swelling. It appears that the search may be nearing an end, thanks
to an enzyme Serrapeptase produced by the larval form of the
Serrapeptase is proving to be a superior alternative to the
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) traditionally used
to treat rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Its uses have also
been extended to the treatment of chronic sinusitis and
postoperative inflammation, and some researchers believe the
substance can play an important role in arterial plaque prevention
Harmful Effects of NSAIDs
NSAIDs, which include aspirin, ibuprofen, salicylates, and naproxen,
are among the most commonly prescribed medications for inflammation
resulting from rheumatoid arthritis, joint conditions,
osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis, joint and muscle discomfort
associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and other
musculoskeletal disorders. (1) In some cases, this over reliance on
NSAIDs has proved deadly. Annually, 76,000 people are hospitalized
from NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications. The American
Medical Association estimates that from 50-80 percent of those
hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding are taking some form of
NSAIDs. At this stage in the medication-induced bleeding, there is a
ten percent chance of fatality. (2)
NSAIDs lethal effects result from the inhibition of the biosynthesis
of prostaglandins. NSAIDs block Cyclo-oxygenase, the enzyme
responsible for catalyzing the reactions of arachidonic acid to
endoperoxide compounds. This process results in the inhibition of
gastric prostaglandin E, a hormone that protects the lining of the
stomach from acid. After prolonged and frequent ingestion of NSAIDs,
the stomach remains defenseless and at increased susceptibility to
ulcers. (3-4) If an ulcer erodes into a blood vessel, bleeding
results. An ulcer can destroy part of the stomach and duodenal
walls, leaving a gap that requires immediate surgery.
In one study, 1,826 osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients
who had been taking NSAIDs for six months or more and who had been
unable to tolerate continuous NSAID use because of adverse
gastrointestinal symptoms were examined endoscopically for
gastroduodenal lesions and ulcers. Clinically significant
gastroduodenal lesions were found in 37.1 percent of the patients.
Of those, 24 percent had ulcers. The prevalence of gastroduodenal
ulcers increased with age, duration of osteoarthritis, and duration
of current NSAID use. The authors of the study wrote: "These results
provide further endoscopic confirmation of the association between
NSAID use and gastroduodenal lesions and ulcers and support the
contention that safer treatment alternatives to conventional NSAIDs
That advice is particularly wise in light of the other effects
NSAIDs have on the gastrointestinal tract. In one group of 312 NSAID
takers, 20 percent had levels of inflammation comparable to that
previously reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. (6)
Besides damaging the gastrointestinal tract, NSAIDs also interfere
with and suppress bone repair and remodeling. One paper presented
data obtained over a 12-year period, and outlined the effects of
NSAIDs on the matrix synthesis and turnover in 650 arthritic and 180
non-arthritic human cartilages. The study showed that one category
of NSAIDs that includes Naproxen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and
nimezulide significantly inhibited matrix synthesis and had toxic
effects on cartilage metabolism. (7) Thus, it appears that the drugs
many patients take to relieve their arthritic pains actually
contributes to further destruction of their joints!
Additionally, NSAIDs have been shown to interfere with patients'
sleep patterns. One study of 37 male and female subjects at the
sleep laboratory at Bowling Green State University in Ohio
demonstrated that aspirin and ibuprofen, in comparison to a placebo,
increased the number of awakenings and the percentage of time spent
awake. The drugs also decreased sleep efficiency, and delayed the
onset of the deeper stages of sleep. (8)
Even insulin secretion is affected by NSAIDs. Neonatal rat
pancreatic cells were examined partly to determine the effects of
insulin secretion caused by prostaglandin E (PGE) and drugs that
inhibit its synthesis-i.e. NSAIDs. Two NSAIDs, sodium salicylate
(aspirin) and ibuprofen, at drug concentrations similar to those
achieved therapeutically in humans, inhibited PGE synthesis up to
70-80 percent. Augmented insulin secretion accompanied the PGE
inhibition. Both drugs shifted the glucose-insulin response curves
to the left at low glucose concentrations and augmented maximal
insulin release at high glucose concentrations. (9)
Other NSAID-induced side effects include kidney damage, blood
dyscrasias and cardiovascular effects, complication of
antihypertensive therapies involving diuretics or beta-adrenoceptor
blockade, and adverse effects in patients with heart failure and
cirrhosis. (10) In one instance, a woman treated for rheumatoid
arthritis with the NSAID sulindac developed gallstones composed of
sulindac metabolites. (11)
Interestingly, NSAIDs have also induced adverse psychiatric
reactions. Five psychiatric outpatients-two with major depressive
disorders, one with a bipolar disorder, one with a schizophrenic
disorder and one with an anxiety disorder-were treated with NSAIDs
due to rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or other painful
neuromuscular conditions. All five patients developed moderate to
severe depression. Three patients became paranoid, and four either
attempted or considered suicide. These psychiatric symptoms
disappeared once the patients stopped taking NSAIDs. When the
patients re-started the drugs, the symptoms returned. (12)
NSAID s Roulette
Due to the detrimental effects of NSAIDs on the body, most
physicians resort to a game of "NSAID musical-chairs," taking a
patient off one NSAID as soon as side effects become evident or the
drug stops working, then treating the patient with another of the 10
most widely prescribed propionic acid-derived NSAIDs.
To provide a more consistent form of treatment, researchers have
long searched for a side-effect free anti-inflammatory agent.
Researchers have recently focused on selective cyclo-oxygenase
(COX-2) inhibitors, more precise versions of NSAIDs. Whereas
previous NSAIDs reduced inflammation by inhibiting all
cyclo-oxygenase activity, these new selective COX-2 inhibitors
differentiate between the two forms of COX: COX-1 appears to
regulate many normal physiologic functions and COX-2 mediates the
inflammatory response. These selective inhibitors are believed to
reduce inflammation without influencing normal physiologic functions
by inhibiting only COX-2. By leaving COX-1 alone, the selective
inhibitors result in fewer gastrointestinal side effects.
At first glance, these COX-2 inhibitors look like the solution to
NSAID complications. Upon further inspection, however, celecoxib, a
highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, can cause headaches, change in
bowel habits, abdominal discomfort and dizziness in osteoarthritis
patients. Fewer adverse effects are reported in rheumatoid arthritis
patients, but because the drug is metabolized in the liver by
cytochrome P-450 isozyme CYP2C9, serious drug interactions are
possible. Fung and colleagues pointed out that more clinical studies
are needed before the selective COX-2 inhibitors are put into
widespread use. (13)
Another new drug, Enbrel, initially showed promise of treating the
pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Currently, however, the
FDA is advising physicians about safety concerns of the new drug.
Thirty of the 25,000 patients treated with Enbrel since the drug's
approval have developed serious infections, including sepsis.
Several of those patients died as a result of the infections. Those
at greatest risk when taking Enbrel appear to be patients with a
history of chronic or recurrent infections, pre-existing infections,
diabetes, or other conditions making them more susceptible to
The potentially lethal side effects associated with NSAIDs and other
drugs indicate that a superior anti-inflammatory substance is
Serrapeptase: A Natural Anti-Inflammatory
Serrapeptase, also known as Serratia peptidase, is a proteolytic
enzyme isolated from the non-pathogenic Enterobacteria Serratia E15.
When consumed in unprotected tablets or capsules, the enzyme is
destroyed by acid in the stomach. However, enterically coated
tablets enable the enzyme to pass through the stomach unchanged, and
be absorbed in the intestine. Serrapeptase is found in negligible
amounts in the urine, suggesting that it is transported directly
from the intestine into the bloodstream. (15,16) Clinical studies
show that Serrapeptase induces fibrinolytic, anti-inflammatory and
anti-edemic (prevents swelling and fluid retention) activity in a
number of tissues, and that its anti-inflammatory effects are
superior to other proteolytic enzymes. (18)
Besides reducing inflammation, one of Serrapeptase's most profound
benefits is reduction of pain, due to its ability to block the
release of pain-inducing amines from inflamed tissues. (18)
Physicians throughout Europe and Asia have recognized the
anti-inflammatory and pain-blocking benefits of this naturally
occurring substance and are using it in treatment as an alternative
to salicylates, ibuprofen and other NSAIDs. (19)
In Germany and other European countries, Serrapeptase is a common
treatment for inflammatory and traumatic swellings, and much of the
research that exists on this substance is of European origin. One
double-blind study was conducted by German researchers to determine
the effect of Serrapeptase on post-operative swelling and pain. This
study involved sixty-six patients who were treated surgically for
fresh rupture of the lateral collateral ligament of the knee. On the
third post-operative day, the group receiving Serrapeptase exhibited
a 50 percent reduction of swelling, compared to the controls. The
patients receiving Serrapeptase also became more rapidly pain-free
than the controls, and by the tenth day, the pain had disappeared
Cystic Breast Disease
Serrapeptase has also been used in the successful treatment of
fibrocystic breast disease. In a double-blind study, 70 patients
complaining of breast engorgement randomly were divided into a
treatment group and a placebo group. Serrapeptase was superior to
the placebo for improvement of breast pain, breast swelling and
induration (firmness). 85.7 percent of the patients receiving
Serrapeptase reported moderate to marked improvement. No adverse
reactions to Serrapeptase were reported and the researchers
concluded, "Serrapeptase is a safe and effective method for the
treatment of breast engorgement.(21, 19)
Serrapeptase and Sinusitis
Due to its inflammatory properties, Serrapeptase has been shown in
clinical studies to benefit chronic sinusitis sufferers. In this
condition, the mucus in patients' nasal cavities is thickened and
hyper secreted. This thickening causes mucus to be expelled less
frequently. Japanese researchers evaluated the effects of
Serratiopeptidase (30 mg/day orally for four weeks) on the
elasticity and viscosity of the nasal mucus in adult patients with
chronic sinusitis. Serratiopeptidase reduced the viscosity of the
mucus, improving the elimination of bronchopulmonary secretions.
Other clinical trials support Serrapeptase's ability to relieve the
problems associated with chronic sinusitis. In one study, 140
patients with acute or chronic ear, nose and throat pathologies were
evaluated with either a placebo or the active Serratia peptidase.
Patients taking the Serrapeptase experienced a significant reduction
in severity of pain, amount of secretion, purulence of secretions,
difficulty in swallowing, nasal dysphonia, nasal obstruction,
anosmia, and body temperature after three to four days and at the
end of treatment. Patients suffering from laryngitis, catarrhal
rhinopharyngitis and sinusitis who were treated with Serrapeptase
experienced a significant and rapid improvement of symptoms after
3-4 days. Physicians assessed efficacy of treatment as excellent or
good for 97.3 percent of patients treated with Serrapeptase compared
with only 21.9 percent of those treated with a placebo. (24)
Respiratory diseases are characterized by increased production of a
more dense mucus modified in viscosity and elasticity.
Traditionally, in respiratory diseases, muco-active drugs are
prescribed to reestablish the physicochemical characteristics of the
mucus in order to restore respiratory function. Some of these drugs,
however, cause a functional depletion of mucus, whereas Serrapeptase
alters the elasticity of mucus without depleting it. (25,10)
A powerful agent by itself, Serrapeptase teamed with antibiotics
delivers increased concentrations of the antimicrobial agent to the
site of the infection. Bacteria often endure a process called
biofilm formation, which results in resistance to antimicrobial
agents. In an attempt to prevent this bacterial immunity,
researchers have experimented with various means of inhibiting
biofilm-embedded bacteria. Their search may have ended with
Serrapeptase. One study conducted by Italian researchers suggests
that proteolytic enzymes could significantly enhance the activities
of antibiotics against biofilms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests
showed that Serratiopeptidase greatly enhances the activity of the
antibiotic, Ofloxacin, and that it can inhibit biofilm
Another double-blind randomized study evaluated the effects of
administering the antibiotic Cephalexin in conjunction with
Serrapeptase or a placebo to 93 patients suffering from either
perennial rhinitis, chronic rhinitis with sinusitis or chronic
relapsing bronchitis. The Serratia peptidase treated group
experienced significant improvement in rhinorrhea, nasal stuffiness,
coryza and improvement of the para-nasal sinus shadows. (24)
Researchers witnessed equally impressive results in the treatment of
infections in lung cancer patients undergoing thoracotomy.
Serrapeptase and Cefotiam, an antibiotic with a broad spectrum of
activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative
microorganisms, were administered to 35 thoracotomy patients with
lung cancer. The patients were divided into two groups. A single
dose of Cefotiam was administered to the 17 subjects in Group I. The
18 subjects in Group II received a combination of Cefotiam and
Serrapeptase. The level of the antibiotic in the tissues versus the
blood was significantly higher in the Serrapeptase group than the
single dose group. (22)
Hans A. Nieper, M.D., an internist from Hannover, Germany, studied
the effects of Serrapeptase on plaque accumulations in the arteries.
The formation of plaque involves deposits of fatty substances,
cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin (a clotting
material in the blood) on the inner lining of the arteries.
Excessive plaque results in partial or complete blockage of the
blood's flow through an artery, resulting in arteriosclerosis, or
hardening of the arteries, and an ensuing stroke or heart attack.
The evidence to support Serrapeptase's role in preventing plaque
build-up is anecdotal. Still, further studies are called for in this
area as Nieper's research indicated that the protein-dissolving
action of Serrapeptase will gradually break down atherosclerotic
Regardless of whether Serrapeptase is used for inflammatory diseases
or to prevent plaque build up on the arteries, it is well tolerated.
Due to its lack of side effects and anti-inflammatory capabilities,
Serrapeptase is a logical choice to replace harmful NSAIDs. Thanks
to the tiny larvae of the silk moth, researchers have taken a large
step toward finding relief for inflammatory disease sufferers.
Active Ingredients in this Formula Include:
· Protease, Bromelain, Serrapeptase, lipase, Papain, Rutin and Amia.
Recommendation: Take 3 capsules daily, at least 45
minutes before or after meals
or as recommended by your healthcare professional.
1.  Raskin JB. Gastrointestinal effects of
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy. Am J Med.
1999; 106 (5B):3S-12S.
2.  No author listed. Regular Use of Pain Relievers Can Have
Kaleidoscope Interactive News, American Medical Association
media briefing. July 24,
3.  Fung HB, Kirschenbaum, HL. Selective cyclooxygenase-2
inhibitors for the treatment of
arthritis. Clin Ther. 1999; 21(7):1131-57.
4.  Geis GS. Update on clinical developments with celecoxib, a
new specific COX-2 inhibitor:
what can we expect? Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1999; 109:31-7.
5.  Cheatum DE, Arvanitakis C, Gumpel M, Stead H, Geis GS. An
endoscopic study of
gastroduodenal lesions induced by nonsteroidal
Clin Ther. 1999; 21(6):992-1003.
6.  Tibble JA, Sigthorsson G, Foster R, Scott D, Fagerhol MK,
Roseth A, Bjarnason I. High
prevalence of NSAID enteropathy as shown by a simple faecal
Gut. 1999; 45(3):362-6.
7. Dingle JT. The effects of NSAID on the matrix of human articular
cartilages. Z Rheumatol.
8.  Murphy PJ, Badia P, Myers BL, Boecker MR, Wright KP Jr.
drugs affect normal sleep patterns in humans. Physiol Behav.
9.  Metz SA, Robertson RP, Fujimoto WY. Inhibition of
prostaglandin E synthesis augments
glucose-induced insulin secretion in cultured pancreas.
Diabetes. 1981; 30(7):551-7.
10. Marriott C. Modification in the rheological properties of mucus
by drugs. Adv Exp Med
Biol. 1982; 144:75-84.
11. Tokumine F, Sunagawa T, Shiohira Y, Nakamoto T, Miyazato F, Muto
cholelithiasis: a case of sulindac stone formation and the
sulindac metabolites into the gallstones. Am J Gastroenterol.
12. Jiang HK, Chang DM. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with
reactions: five case reports. Clin Rheumatol.
13. Fung HB, Kirschenbaum, HL. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors
for the treatment of
arthritis. Clin Ther. 1999; 21(7):1131-57.
14. FDA MedWatch: The FDA Medical Products Reporting Program. May
12, 1999. FDA Talk
15. Moriya N, Nakata M, Nakamura M, Takaoka M, Iwasa S, Kato K,
Kakinuma A. Intestinal
absorption of serrapeptase (TSP) in rats. Biotechnol Appl
Biochem. 1994; 20(Pt1):101-8.
16. Miyata, K. Intestinal absorption of Serratia Peptidase. J Appl
17. Perna L. Osservazionl Clniche sui traitamento in osppio cleco
con Serratio peptidasl nella
neifre perenna naila ninite cronica nacutizzata con
sinusopattia, nella bronchia cronica
nacutizzata. Rlv Pat Clin Tuberc Penumol. 1985; 56:509-516.
18. Mazzone A, et al. Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or
chronic inflammation of
otorhinolaryngology pathology: a multicentre, double-blind,
versus placebo. J Int Med Res. 1990; 18(5):379-88.
19. Aso T et al. Breast engorgement and its treatment: Clinical
effects of Danzen an anti-
inflammatory enzyme preparation. The world of Obstetrics and
20. Esch PM, Gerngross H, Fabian A. Reduction of postoperative
measurement of swelling of the upper ankle joint in treatment
with serrapeptase-a study
(German). Fortschr Med. 1989;107(4):67-8, 71-2.
21. Kee WH, Tan SL, Lee V, Salmon YM. The treatment of breast
Serrapeptase (Danzen): a randomized double-blind controlled
trial. Singapore Med J.
22. Koyama A, Mori J, Tokuda H, Waku M, Anno H, Katayama T, Murakami
K, Komatsu H,
Hirata M, Arai T, et al. Augmentation by serrapeptase of tissue
permeation by cefotiam
(Japanese). Jpn J Antibiot. 1986; 39(3):761-71.
23. Majima Y, Inagaki M, Hirata K, Takeuchi K, Morishita A, Sakakura
Y. The effect of an
orally administered proteolytic enzyme on the elasticity and
viscosity of nasal mucus.
Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1988;244(6):355-9.
24. Brewer Science Library website. 1999. prospective
25. Tomoda K, and Miyatam K. Some information on the composition of
before and after the administration of Danzen. Exper Ther.
26. Kase Y, et al. A new method for evaluating mucolytic expectorant
activity and its
application to two proteolytic enzymes, serratiopeptidase and
Arznelrnitteltorachung. 1982; 32:374-378.
28. Selan L, Berlutti F, Passariello C, Comodi-Ballanti MR, Thaller
MC. Proteolytic enzymes:
a new treatment strategy for prosthetic infections? Antimicrob
Agents Chemother. 1993;
The above statements have not been evaluated by
the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or
prevent any diseases.